Ecology and Branches of Ecology

Ecology- The word ecology derived from the Greek word 'Oikos meaning habitation, and logos meaning discourse or study, implies a study of the habitations of organisms. Ecology may be studied with particular reference to animals or to plants, hence animal ecology and plant ecology. Animal ecology, however, cannot be adequately understood except against a considerable background of plant ecology. What animal and plants are given equal emphasis, the term bioecology is often used. Causes is plant ecology usually dismiss animals as but one of many factors in the environment. Synecology is the study of communities, and autecology the study of species.

Specialized branches of ecology- Besides these major ecological subdivisions, there are following specialized branches of ecologyHabitatIt deals with ecological study of different habitats on planet earth and their effects on the organisms living there. According to the kind of habitat, ecology is subdivided into marine ecology (oceanography), estuarine ecology, fresh water ecology (limnology), and terrestrial ecology. The terrestrial ecology in its turn is classified into forest ecology, cropland ecology, grassland ecology, desert ecology, etc., according to the kinds of study of its different habitats. Community: The study of the local distribution of animals in various habitats, the recognition and composition of community units, and succession. Population: It deals with the study of the manner of growth, structure and regulation of population of organisms. Evolutionary: It deals with the problems of niche segregation and speciation. Taxonomic: It is concerned with the ecology of different taxonomic groups of living organisms and eventually includes following divisions of ecology: microbial ecology, mammalian ecology, avian ecology, insect ecology, parasitological, human ecology and so on. Human ecology: It involves population ecology or man and mans relation to the environment, especially mans effects on the biosphere and the implication of these effects for man. Applied ecology: It deals with the application of ecological concepts to human needs and thus, it includes following applications of ecology: wild-life management, range management, forestry, conservation, insect control, epidemiology, animal husbandry, aquaculture, agriculture, horticulture, and land use and pollution ecology. Ecosystem dynamics: It deals with the ecological study of the processes of soil formation, nutrient cycle energy flow, and productivity. Production ecology: It deals with the gross and net production of different ecosystems like fresh water, sea water, agriculture, horticulture, etc., and tries to do proper management of these ecosystems so that maximum yield can be get from them. Ecological energetic: It deals with energy conservation and its flow in the organisms within the ecosystem. In it thermodynamics has its significant contribution. Physiological ecology: The factors of environment have a direct bearing on the functional aspects of organisms. The ecophysiology deals with the survival of populations as a result of functional adjustments of organisms with different ecological conditions. Chemical ecology: It concerns with the adaptations of animals of preferences of particular organisms like insects to particular chemical substances.

Ecological genetics: An ecologist recognized kind of genetic spasticity in the case of every organism. In any environment only, those organisms that are favored by the environment can survive. Thus, genecology deals with the study of variations of species based upon their genetic potentialities. Paleoecology: It is the study of environmental conditions, and life of the past ages, to which palynology, paleontology, and radioactive dating methods have made significant contribution. Geographic ecology: It concentrates on the study of geographical distribution of animals (zoogeography) and plants (phytogeography), and also of paleoecology and biomes. Space ecology: It is a modern subdivision of ecology which is concerned with the development of partially or completely regenerating ecosystems for supporting life of man during long space flights or during extended exploration of extra-terrestrial environments. Radiation ecology: It deals with the study of gross effects of radiations and radioactive substances over the environment and living organisms. Ethology: It is the interpretation of animal behavior under natural conditions. In it, often, detailed life history studies of particular species are amassed. Sociology: It is the study of ecology and ethology of mankind. Systems ecology: It is the modern branch of ecology which is particularly concerned with the analysis and understanding of the function and structure of ecosystem by the use of applied mathematics, such as advanced statistical techniques, mathematical models, characteristics of computer sciences.
Ecology and Branches of Ecology Ecology and Branches of Ecology Reviewed by Afsar on November 14, 2017 Rating: 5

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